This glossary provides definitions and abbreviations/acronyms commonly found in this website, our research and relevant publications.



In vascular plants - the blocking of a xylem vessel by an air bubble or cavity.

Exudation / sap exudation

Fluid excreted from cut vessels of wood of living plants, caused by elevated pressure inside the plant.

In vitro

Studies that are carried out with cells or biological components that have been removed from the living organism of interest.

In vivo

Studies that are in-vivo are carried out on whole, living organisms or cells.

Microstructures (in plants)

The geometric arrangement of cells that make up a plant’s tissues.


A crop planted in rows wide enough to be tilled or otherwise cultivated by agricultural machinery.


The practice of controlling the growth, composition, health and quality of commercial plantations/forests to maximise value.


A sugar compound produced naturally in plants. It is composed of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose, joined together.

Tree sap

The ‘blood’ of a tree, filled with nutrients and minerals. It is transported by xylem cells.

Tree syrup

Syrup produced by boiling water from the tree sap, concentrating it into a sweet syrup.

Vascular plants

Plants that have a system of ‘tubes’ that connect all parts of the plant, roots, shoots and leaves, to transport water and nutrients from one part of the plant to another.


The water conducting (vascular) tissue of plants. Responsible for the upward conduction of water and nutrients from the roots.

Imaging Techniques & Organisations


Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, used interchangeably for the Australian Synchrotron.


Cryogenic electron microscopy, which includes both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.


Differential scanning calorimetry. A technique to measure energy flows on small samples - in this context to determine freezing point depression.


High Performance Liquid Chromatography. A technique to separate, identify or quantify the components in a mixture.


Ion Chromotography. A form of liquid chromatography that uses ion-exchange resins to separate atomic and molecular ions (e.g. proteins, peptides) for analysis.


Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron


Light optical microscopy or micrograph. A technique used to make small structures and samples visible by providing a magnified image of how they interact with visible light.


Nuclear magnetic resonance. This technique analyses the molecular structure of a material by observing and measuring the interaction of nuclear spins when placed in a powerful magnetic field.


Scanning electron microscopy. A microscopy technique that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons.


French national synchrotron facility.


Transmission electron microscopy. A microscopy technique in which an image is formed by a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen.


X-ray micro-tomography. This technique uses X-rays to create cross-sections of a physical object that can be used to recreate a 2D model without destroying the original object. MCT refers to the micro-computed tomography beamline at ANSTO, which produces high spatial resolution images.

Tree Species

Birch (Paper Birch, White Birch)

Betula papyrifera

Sugar Maple

Acer saccharum

Te Reo Māori

Mahinga kai

Garden, cultivation, food-gathering place.

Mātauranga Māori

Māori knowledge - the body of knowledge originating from Māori ancestors, including the Māori world view and perspectives, Māori creativity and cultural practices.


Remedy, medicine, drug, cure, medication, treatment, solution (to a problem), tonic.


World, Earth, natural world, environment, nature, country.